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Our mission is to create a common platform to the researcher from the least corner of the world where the knowledge can be accessed without restriction to the published content. Our goal is to publish high quality scientific content in our esteemed journals and through the open access initiative deliver latest findings to every individual. Boffin Access encourages young scholar to get associated with us and we provide latest updates on your field of interest, which helps in building professional careers.

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Boffin Access

Boffin Access is an emerging open access publisher which has a huge portfolio of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) journals with a definitive aim to provide the widest access to the research. Boffin Access encourages the global research communities to submit and get publish their pioneer work in our journals. Our aim is to create new venues where researchers together and share, exchange and update the current knowledge.

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Recently PUBLISHED Articles


Can Clinical Reminder Help Optimize the Use of Secondary Prevention Therapies in Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome?

Patients with ACS remain at high risk of major coronary events and require further therapy to improve their survival and lower morbidity.
A total of 35 Canadian hospitals participated and enrolled NSTEMI ACS patients admitted with the first event. Patients surviving to hospital discharge were followed up at 4 and 6 months to assess the use of recommended secondary prevention measures. Physicians were reminded of the recommended secondary prevention measures by way of a clinical reminder which was shown if an individual patient management did not conform to the recommendations.
A total of 423 patients (70% male) who were 63.4 ± 11.2 years old were recruited by 28 hospitals. Systolic and diastolic BP was 140 ± 23 and 80 ± 14 mmHg, respectively and the heart rate was 75±15 beats per minute. Time from symptom onset to presentation was 1-12 hours in 57%, 12-24 hours in 20%, and > 24 hours in 23%. Presenting ECG was normal in 43%, revealed T wave inversion in 30%, ST segment depression in 26% and non-specific changes in 18%. While in hospital 93% of patients had an angiogram, PCI was performed in 67% and CABG in 12%. Recommended secondary prevention measures were prescribed in only 31% of patients at hospital discharge; the use of the clinical reminder was associated with significant increase in secondary prevention treatments during the follow up (p =0.0072).

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Clinical Dystrophia Myotonica first presenting as Gestational Diabetes

Myotonic dystrophy is a rare form of muscular dystrophy that is associated with glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinism, among other associated endocrinopathies.
It is a cause of infertility in males, and it’s effect on pregnancy of affected females has been described ,generally a deterioration of their clinical symptoms, as well as other possible complications such as polyhydramnios, reduced fetal movement, preterm labour and postpartum hemorrhage; however; the occurrence of gestational diabetes (GDM) in myotonic patients has not been described in the literature, although it may account for some of the previously mentioned pregnancy related complications.
We present a 37 year old female who came to our attention with newly diagnosed GDM during her second pregnancy, and exhibited long standing physical signs of myotonia that worsened during her pregnancy.

Citation: Eetiwi S, Jennings P (2017) Clinical Dystrophia Myotonica first presenting as Gestational Diabetes. Endocrinol Diabetes Open Access 1(1): 101

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Comparison of Inter and Intra-Operator Differences for Cephalometric Landmark Identification on Three-Dimensional CBCT Images using Pro Plan CMF

Objective: To establish reliability of cephalometric landmark identification in threedimensions using ProPlan CMF software.
Methods: Two orthodontist identified a series of 33 cephalometric landmarks on 20 CBCT scans of Class I, pre-orthodontic patients and repeated the landmark identification about two months later. Intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated by landmark in the X, Y, and Z dimensions and F-test were used to assess difference in landmark location in the X, Y, and Z dimensions.
Results: The majority of landmarks had good to excellent ICC for both inter- and intraobserver reliability. F-test also showed the majority of landmarks had no significant difference between the observers.
Conclusion: Most landmarks showed good to very good reliability and reproducibility using ProPlan CMF, with some landmarks proving more reliable than others and further research is needed to establish the utility and practicality of three-dimensional cephalometrics as a common diagnostic tool in orthodontics

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Therapeutic Effect of Blueberry Extracts for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological malignancy with high incidence in the aging population. In addition, AML is one of the more common pediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, both of these patient groups are quite sensitive to chemotherapy toxicities. Investigation of blueberries specifically as an anti-AML agent has been limited, despite being a prominent natural product with no reported toxicity. In this study, blueberry extracts are reported for the first time to exert a dietary therapeutic effect in animal models of AML. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed that blueberry extracts exerted anti-AML efficacy against myeloid leukemia cell lines as well as against primary AML, and specifically provoked Erk and Akt regulation within the leukemia stem cell subpopulation. This study provides evidence that blueberries may be unique sources for anti-AML biopharmaceutical compound discovery, further warranting fractionation of this natural product. More so, blueberries themselves may provide an intriguing dietary option to enhance the anti-AML efficacy of traditional therapy for subsets of patients that otherwise may not tolerate rigorous combinations of therapeutics.

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Dermal Filler and Dental Implant Correlation

Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been the material of choice for soft tissue augmentation in the last decade. Injection of dermal fillers has become very popular due to the fact that many patients seek facial rejuvenation avoiding surgery. Although they are considered safe, adverse reactions and complications could develop in the subsequent months or years following this treatment [1,2]. In the literature, in the hands of experienced physicians, hyaluronic acid can be safely used as a filler, although complications, such as bruising and necrosis, may occur and need to be managed promptly [2-4]. For example, prior to facial dermal filler injection, the patient should report on presence of dental pain and dental problems treated recently. It is known that active dental infection might lead to infection of the dermal filler and vice versa. In the literature there are few case report regarding infection of the filler with an odontogenic origin [5].

Citation: Yifat Manor, Haim D (2017) Dermal Filler and Dental Implant Correlation. J Dents Dent Med 1:105

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Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Different Concentrations Floriated Phosphoric Acid

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of adding the sodium fluoride to different phosphoric acid concentrations on Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of orthodontics brackets bonded to enamel surface
Methods: Forty eight freshly extracted human premolar for orthodontic purposes, were collected, and were randomly divided into four Groups. G1 etched by 37% Phosphoric acid for 30 s, G2 etched by 25% Phosphoric acid for 30 s, G 3 etched by 37% fluoridated Phosphoric acid (0.863% F-) for 30 s, G4 etched by fluoridated 25 % Phosphoric acid (0.694% F-) for 30s. Stainless steel metal brackets (Forestadent Company-sprint-Brackets) were bonded to teeth using self curing composite (system–RMO/ mono-lok2 bonding). A Universal Testing Machine (Testometric M350-5KN, UK) was used to measure SBS, 24 hours after bonding, and the force applied to the ligature groove between bracket base and wings. Data were analyzed using One- Way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test (p ≤ 0.05).
Results: The mean SBSs were 14.97 MPa, 15.47MPa, 13.09 MPa and 11.16MPa for Groups 1-4 respectively. Significant differences in shear bond strengths were shown between Groups 2 and 4.
Significance: The results suggested that the using mixed phosphoric acid 37% with NaF gel 1.23% for 30 s (0.863%F-) have no effect on SBS and may have a clinical application in the prevention of demineralization or caries surrounding and under orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel. Nevertheless, mixed phosphoric acid 25% with NaF% gel (0.694% F-) results to reducing SBS it may have a clinical application.

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Tissue damage in post infectious sequelae is caused by asynergism between microbial and neutrophils-derived agonists: a concern for a disregard for already published data

Post infectious sequelae such as sepsis and septic shock are poorly understood and annually take the lives of millions over the world. Severe microbial infections caused by Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria and by fungi are the main causes, which are aggravated by the rapid development of antibiotic resistance. It is unfortunate that today all the clinical trials of sepsis which tested the efficacy of single antagonists failed. Sepsis was recently redefined as a synergistic multifactorial episode where no unique alarmin had been identified, which if inhibited could control the deleterious biochemical and immune immunological events characteristic of sepsis.
An apparent “breakthrough “in our understanding of sepsis pathogenicity was published in 2009 in Nature Medicine arguing that the main cause of mortality in sepsis is the release from neutrophils (PMNs) nets of highly toxic nuclear histone. This caused endothelial cell dysregulation leading to organ failure. However, this concept downplays the concept that concomitantly with the activation of PMNs, a plethora of additional proinflammatory agents is also released. These can act in synergy with histone to injure cells. Furthermore, since many additional clinical disorders not related to sepsis also reported high levels of circulating histones, this toxic agent may be considered just another marker of cell damage. The failure to treat sepsis by the administration of only single antagonists should be replaced by cocktails of appropriate anti inflammatory agents.

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Evaluation of Freezing Capacity of a Conceptual Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) Appliance in the Context of IEC 62552 Standards

Preserving food item individually in an Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) package is a new concept. Before completing a product commercialization process, AFPS packages must be certified against mandatory standards like IEC 62552. This paper evaluates two key aspects of energy efficiency against the IEC standard. Internal volume and storage capacity are evaluated qualitatively. Freezing capacity will be evaluated by experimentation with a simulated AFPS package. The result is verified by an analytical model. Error source and rectifications are identified. The usable storage capacity with AFPS packages is larger than that in a typical refrigerator if both have the same internal volume. Experimentation and theoretical model analysis have demonstrated that the freezing times are 3.18 and 3.32 hours, respectively, which can be considered agreeable. The freezing capacity of the conceptual AFPS package is found to comply with the IEC standard.

Citation: Tsang AHF, Yung KC. Evaluation of Freezing Capacity of a Conceptual Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) Appliance in the Context of IEC 62552 Standards. Food Nutr OA. 2017 Nov: 1(1):101

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Highlights of CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing

Trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) is one motif that is necessary to recruit the Cas9 nuclease complex and direct it to the target sequence, using the guide RNA (gRNA) including target recognition sequence. In addition, one CRISPR-Cas9 needs to detect target with the Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM), which is defined as NGG or etc. CRISPR-Cas9 enables to excise 3 to 4 nucleotides of the upstream of the PAM motif.
On the other hand, inside the cells there exist some repair pathways for DNA, which will be activated with Double-stranded breaks (DSB) on target sequencing. In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing there are two ways for starting edition: 1) Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) that enables to insert or delete nucleotides or fragment randomly, at the site of repair on target sequencing, leading to suppress the gene with no longer expression and cause to knock-out. 2) The Homologous Recombination (HR) sequences cause to integrate DNA or knock-in to the DSB sites, leading to make precise mutation on the target genes.

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